Environmental and nutritional factors affecting antipyrine metabolism in man.

by John Christopher Mucklow

Publisher: Universityof Birmingham in Birmingham

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 510
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Edition Notes

Thesis (M.D.) - University of Birmingham, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 1981.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13796434M

  factors affectingbiotransformation of drugs vincy varghese (pharmaceutics) Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. More generally, xenobiotic metabolism (from the Greek xenos "stranger" and biotic "related to living beings") is the set of metabolic pathways that modify the chemical structure of xenobiotics, which are compounds foreign to an organism's normal biochemistry, such as any drug. Hormonal factors - Hormonal imbalances caused by certain conditions, including hypo- and hyperthyroidism, can affect your metabolism. 8. Environmental factors - .   Malnutrition is usually complex, many deficiencies occurring simultaneously. Changes occur in almost every organ of the body. Apart from the pathophysiological changes which occur in protein-calorie malnutrition, vitamin, mineral and trace element deficiency is accompanied by diverse metabolic changes in tissues. As a consequence there is large potential for alteration of drug Cited by:

Hormonal factors – Hormonal imbalances caused by certain conditions, including hypo- and hyperthyroidism, can affect your metabolism. 8. Environmental factors .   Various factors affect a person's health, and medical professionals classify them as internal and external. External factors pertain to the direct outer environment, the geographical location and micro-organisms that could affect an individual's health. Smoking adversely affects a person's metabolism and life expectancy. 5 Non-Diet Factors That Can Affect Your Weight Research shows that a number of lifestyle and environmental factors play roles in influencing metabolism and weight control. Here's how . Metabolic rift is Karl Marx's notion of the "irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism", i.e. Marx's key conception of ecological crisis tendencies under theorized a rupture in the metabolic interaction between humanity and the rest of nature emanating from capitalist production and the growing division between town and country.

  There is some evidence in animals and humans that drug metabolism diminishes with old age, Much of the evidence, however, is based on prolonged plasma half-lives of drugs that are metabolized totally or mainly by hepatic microsomal enzymes (e.g., antipyrine.   Watch the video lecture "Factors Affecting Drug Metabolism – Biotransformation | Pharmacokinetics (PK)" & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield video lectures by world-class professors & earn perfect scores. Save time & study efficiently. Try now for free! Online Learning with Lecturio - anytime, anywhere5/5(1).   Antipyrine clearance was studied again in 27 patients after nutritional rehabilitation with artificial nutrition for 31 ± 4 days (x̄ ± SEM). Concomitant with an improvement in nutritional state, clearances tended towards normal values in group P (n = 17) Cited by: Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms. Ecotoxicology is a subdiscipline of environmental toxicology concerned with studying the harmful effects of toxicants at the population and ecosystem levels.. Rachel Carson is considered the mother of.

Environmental and nutritional factors affecting antipyrine metabolism in man. by John Christopher Mucklow Download PDF EPUB FB2

Kolmodin B, Azarnoff DL, Sjöqvist F. Effect of environmental factors on drug metabolism: decreased plasma half-life of antipyrine in workers exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. Clin Cited by: In twenty‐six men occupationally exposed to a mixture of insecticides, mainly lindane and DDT, antipyrine had a significantly shorter plasma half‐life than in 33 control sub;ects.

If the mechanism is the same as that in animals, these studies indicate that insecticides can induce microsomal drug metabolism in by: In the Londoners four environmental factors‐diet, cigarette smoking, use of the SOC, and body weight‐were significant independent predictors of antipyrine half‐life.

Together they explained 49% of the variation. A vegetarian diet prolonged the half‐life by 50% compared with a nonvegetarian by: Antipyrine metabolism in man☆. Abstract. The metabolism of antipyrine (AP) has been investigated in 15 healthy subjects by relating the saliva AP elimination rates to the urinary excretion rates of 4-hydroxyantipyrine (APH), 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine (AP-CH Cited by: Antipyrine metabolism in man: Influence of age, alcohol, caffeine, and smoking Robert E.

Vestal M.D. The Clinical Physiology Branch, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, The Baltimore City Hospitals, and the Department of Epidemiology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, The Johns Hopkins Cited by: Links between carbohydrate metabolism and virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been recurrently established.

To investigate these links further we developed a chemically defined medium (CDM) and standardized growth conditions that allowed for high growth yields of the related pneumococcal strains D39 and R6. The utilization of the defined medium enabled the evaluation of. Dietary Factors Influencing Drug Metabolism Metabolism enhanced High protein-low carbohydrate diet Dietary flavonoids (certain edible plants) Dietary indoles (cruciferous vegetables) Charcoal-broiling of food Metabolism impaired Protein-energy malnutrition Dietary xanthines J.C.

MUCKLOW Ingestion of meat which has been broiled over charcoal results in increased presystemic metabolism of phenacetin (Conney et al., ), as well as faster elimination of antipyrine Cited by: Abstract.

Food components can promote or retard the absorption and metabolism of nutrients and drugs. The extent of Environmental and nutritional factors affecting antipyrine metabolism in man. book effect on the absorption or metabolism of drugs depends on the characteristics of the food, when the food is consumed, whether fluids are taken with the food, and on the characteristics of the individual consuming the by: 1.

Genetic and environmental factors contribute to a wide inter- and intraindividual variability in drug metabolism. Among the environmental factors that may influence drug metabolism, the diet and nutritional status of the individuals are important determinants. As altered drug-metabolising enzyme activities can influence the intensity and duration of drug action, such factors should be Cited by:   Factors Affecting Metabolism A number of factors may influence the metabolic rate of a drug.

Some of them are: 1. Chemical factors a) Enzyme induction b) Enzyme inhibition c) Environmental chemicals 2. Biological factors a) Age b) Diet c) Sex difference d) Species difference e) Strain difference f). Both ageing and the environment have a significant impact on xenobiotic metabolism. Furthermore, there is some evidence from in vivo studies that the elderly respond to environmental changes to a lesser degree than younger individuals.

This article reviews the available evidence and concentrates on possible underlying by: Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

Abstract. Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic by: 9.

There are, however, factors from outside the body that can also have a profound influence on drug metabolism. The body can be exposed to these factors by design (e.g.

alcohol, tobacco smoke, and substances taken as food) or by accident (air, water and food contaminants or pollutants).Cited by: 6. This is due to the presence of several drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, including a group of membrane-bound mixed-function oxidative enzymes, mainly the cytochrome P system.

Hepatic oxidative capacity can be assessed by changes in antipyrine metabolism. Different drugs and other factors may induce or inhibit Cited by: Effects of Environment on Metabolism. In book: Environmental Physiology of Livestock, pp Environmental factors, including ambient temperature, radiant energy, relative humidity, and.

Light and other environmental factors may influence the phase of the rhythm by nonlinear mechanisms. Regular exercise acts as an inducer of the hepatic microsomal entyme system in man. Antipyrine half-life time becomes shorter in proportion to the intensity of habitual muscular exercise.

These chapters also describe drug metabolism in. The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up by: Genetic and environmental factors contribute to a wide inter- and intraindividual variability in drug metabolism.

Among the environmental factors that may influence drug metabolism, the diet and nutritional status of the individuals are important by: Gibson GG, Skett P. Factors affecting drug metabolism: external factors. In: Introduction to Drug Metabolism.

London: Blackie Academic & Professional, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall, pp – Genetic and environmental factors affecting ethanol metabolism in man Elliot S.

Vesell M.D. Section on Pharmacogenetics, Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, National Heart and Lung Institute, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Pharmacology, Milton S.

Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Bethesda, Md., and Hershey, by: Antipyrine metabolism in relation to polymorphic oxidations of sparteine and debrisoquine.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract. Thirty-five healthy subjects who had been classified as extensive or poor metabolizers of both sparteine and debrisoquine were Cited by: Socio-cultural factors, such as religion, food, and social status, also influence nutritional intake and needs.

Religion and culture influence what people understand to be edible foods, what they eat, and as such has an impact on which nutrients are consumed and which nutrients may be needed in higher amounts (Cultural Foods, ).Cited by: 1. The biggest component of your metabolism, (%) of the energy used, is your basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is the energy your body burns just to maintain functioning at rest.

Here are ten factors that affect BMR and metabolism: 1. Muscle mass. The amount of muscle tissue on your body. Muscle requires more energy to function than fat. Factors Affecting Metabolism.

discusses various physiological factors affecting drug metabolism. described as a detoxication of potentially harmful substances from the environment. This is. Ethnic and environmental variations in the prevalence of osteoporosis 75 Ethnicity 76 Geography 76 Culture and diet 77 The calcium paradox 78 Nutritional factors affecting calcium requirement 78 Sodium 78 Protein 79 Vitamin D 81 Implications 81 Conclusions Antipyrine (AP) metabolism was used to assess factors associated with the activity of hepatic oxidative enzymes in firefighters.

Emphasis was placed on 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine (3HMAP), the. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are the substances present in the environment, food, and consumer products, which have the ability to affect hormone production and metabolism among other functions.

Type-1 DM is seen more in people who consume fish that have higher amounts of heavy metal pollutants like cadimum and lead present in : Poondy Gopalratnam Raman.

Relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to 2-fold interindividual variations in rate constants for formation of the three main antipyrine metabolites were compared. The environmental impact of agriculture is the effect that different farming practices have on the ecosystems around them, and how those effects can be traced back to those practices.

The environmental impact of agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Ultimately, the environmental impact depends on the production practices of the. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23(6), Davis, D.

et al. Changes in the USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, to Journal of the American College of Nutrition. EPA's Report on Environmental Pollution and Disease. Halweil, B. (). E.g. Sulfonamides decrease the metabolism of phenytoin so that its blood levels become toxic. Cimetidine decreases the metabolism of propanolol leading to enhanced bradycardia.

Oral contraceptives inhibit metabolism of antipyrine. 6. Biological Factors Age Gender Genetics Race Diet 7.Human nutrition, process by which substances in food are transformed into body tissues and provide energy for the full range of physical and mental activities that make up human life.

Foods supply nutrients that are critical for human growth. Learn about essential nutrients, food groups, and dietary requirements.The following list looks at factors that affect your calorie needs.

Your age: Calorie needs peak at about age 25 and then decline by about 2 percent every 10 years. So if you’re 25 years old and need 2, calories to maintain your weight, you’ll need only 2, by the time you’re 35; 2, at age 45; 2, at age 55; and so on.